Functional Respiratory Imaging of the Airways in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Available online 7 February 2020

Schepens, Xiao, Holsbeke CV, Vos W, Backer J, Parizel PM, Backer W, Qin L6, Rouby JJ, Jorens PG.

Alveolar flooding and airway obstruction are present in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The impact of positive end-expiratory pressure on regional airway aeration has not been described.

To assess bronchial and lung recruitment and distension during an incremental positive end-expiratory pressure trial in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Six patients underwent lung and airway imaging at four positive end-expiratory pressure levels in a cohort trial. Images were post-processed by means of Functional Respiratory Imaging. This technique offers 3-dimensional visualisation and quantification of patients’ airway and lung geometry on a regional level.

With increasing positive end-expiratory pressure from 0 to 20 cmH2O (high), the median bronchial recruitment was 151% and the median bronchial distension 43%. Non-aerated lower lobes bronchi had more bronchial volume increase at high positive end-expiratory pressure than partially aerated upper lobes bronchi. Lung recruitment tended to be higher in patients with non-focal acute respiratory distress syndrome. In two patients, bronchial volume increase at high positive end-expiratory pressure largely exceeded bronchial volume increase observed in matched healthy control subjects at total lung capacity, suggesting severe bronchial over-distension.

In early acute respiratory distress syndrome, Functional Respiratory Imaging gives an innovative insight into the relationship between positive end-expiratory pressure-induced bronchial distension and recruitment, positive end-expiratory pressure-induced lung recruitment and hyperinflation and lung morphology.

Copyright © 2020 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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